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Vocabulary�

astronauts

people who go into space to explore

to orbit

to circle round a planet or object in space

marked

celebrated, honoured

space race

the competition between the US and the Soviet Union for supremacy in space

pioneering

discovering new places and things, opening up new possibilities

to be impressed

to think something is very good

to publicise

to make known

budget

sum of money allocated to be used during a certain period of time

under threat

in danger

sprightly

lively and full of energy

capsized

turned over in water

speculating

formulating opinions about something without knowing all the facts

etiquette

the formal rules of correct behaviour

abandoned

left behind forever

heroic

showing extreme courage and admired by many people

custom

an accepted way of doing things

compels

forces someone to do something

genes

the units in the cells of a living thing that determine its physical characteristics

contradicts

says or does the opposite of something

lean

thin but strong and fit

to get hitched

an informal expression meaning to get married

to miss your chance

to fail to take advantage of an opportunity

to brush up

to revise or improve your knowledge of something

to be sick of something

to be annoyed or bored by something

to ban

to stop or forbid something

internal emails

emails sent and received between employees in the workplace

spam

junk emails

definitive

something that's determined, fixed or conclusive

embedding

implanting, to fix firmly

to get rid of

to stop or clear away

keeping records

keeping evidence of things that happen

adopting

using, taking on

a film buff

a person who is very interested in films and knows a lot about them

art-house

films which are made by small companies and are not usually seen by a wide audience

blockbuster

a very successful film financially

aesthetic

concerned with beauty and art and the understanding of beautiful things

orphaned

made parentless through death

grief

a feeling of great sadness, especially when somebody dies

for posterity

for all the people who will live in the future

humble

insignificant or unimportant

klobasa

smoked sausage, served whole

hung-over

feel ill from drinking too much alcohol the night before

gentrification

changing an area to make it look more expensive and elegant

gastric foreboding

feeling that something unpleasant is going to happen with your stomach

thoroughfare

main road or street through a city

makeover

improving the appearance of a place

pedestrianise

make an area exclusively for people who are walking
without any traffic

avian scavengers

birds that search for and eat leftover food scraps

salubrious

pleasant and clean

Layout

An arrangement or a plan of parts of the area

Shopping mall

Specially built covered area containing shops and restaurants

Shopping centre

A purpose built complex of shops restaurants and other businesses

Department store

A large store selling a variety of goods under one roof and organised into different sections

Disorienting

Loosing sense of direction or position

Retail

The sale of goods to the public

Anthropology

The scientific study of the origin, behaviour and development of humans

Gobbledygook

Language which you can not understand at all

Gibberish

Talk which does not make any sense

Mumbo jumbo

Something that does not make any sense at all to you

To set something up

To start or to build something

To spread the word

To tell a lot of people about something

Early adopters

Individuals who use new technology or products before others

Geeks

Here, persons who are inordinately dedicated to and involved with technology

a sham wedding

a wedding which is false or not real, perhaps arranged to gain money dishonestly

phoney

fake or false

bogus

not genuine

scrutiny

careful observation or examination of something

a loophole

a way of avoiding a rule or law

departure point

a place where you leave from to start a journey

land reclamation

taking areas of water and turning them into land that can be built on

contributor

something that causes something else to happen

transporting

moving people or things from one place to another

cargo

goods carried in a ship or a plane

booming

rapidly growing

undertaking

task or project somebody is committed to

tasks

pieces of work that somebody has to do

compromise

an agreement made between two sides in which each side gives up some of the things they want

environmentalists

a person concerned about the environment and who wants to improve and protect it

chromosome

a very small structure in animal or plant cells

hormones

chemical substances in the body that influence cell function

pessimistic

expecting bad things to happen

ratio

numerical expression of the relative sizes between two or more values

extinction

a situation in which a life form stops existing

breathe a sigh of relief

feel happy that something unpleasant stops

depleted

reduced by a large amount

genes

units in cells that control qualities passed on through generations

natural selection

a process in nature that determines chances of survival

stereotypes

a fixed idea or image that people have about something

hacker

a person who illegally breaks into a computer or network, to get access to other people's information

cyber attack

an assault against a computer system or network

cyber war/ cyber warfare

the use of the internet, computers and other devices to attack another person(or company)'s information systems

cyberspace

the virtual, online world of computers and networks

cybercafe

a place which offers internet access as well as drinks and snacks

did not specify

did not say, or give details about

originated from

came from

in response to

in answer to, as a reaction to

invader

someone/something that enters a place where it isn't wanted

habitat

the natural home of a plant or animal

southernmost

the place that is furthest south

flourishing

to grow well

tip

the pointed end of something

frisk

search

tucked away

hidden in something

ecology

the study of the relationship between organisms

overwhelm

to be too strong for something, to dominate

advocate

be in favour of

humble

insignificant or unimportant

klobasa

smoked sausage, served whole

hung-over

feel ill from drinking too much alcohol the night before

gentrification

changing an area to make it look more expensive and elegant

gastric foreboding

feeling that something unpleasant is going to happen with your stomach

thoroughfare

main road or street through a city

makeover

improving the appearance of a place

pedestrianise

make an area exclusively for people who are walking
without any traffic

avian scavengers

birds that search for and eat leftover food scraps

salubrious

pleasant and clean

explorers

people who travel to unknown places to find out about them

epic journey

a trip that is very ambitious and long

expedition

an organised journey or voyage with a specific purpose

exhibition

a display of items, usually at a museum or gallery

exposure

being outside in severe weather for too long

endeavour

to make a great effort to achieve something

pitch darkness

without any daylight, the term 'pitch black' is also commonly used

endured

carried on through hardships

a balaclava

a warm woollen hood that covers the head, neck and ears

a hereditary monarchy

a system where a royal family rule a country, with the children of each king or queen succeeding their mother or father as the next ruler

inconsistent with

not matching or similar to

gruesome

something involving death or injury which is very unpleasant

gallows

place where people are hanged by the neck until they die, after being convicted of a crime

die-hard republicans

people who are very committed to their country being a republic, where all leaders are voted into power

elected

given political power or responsibility after being voted for by people in an election

scrapping

getting rid of, or abolishing

more accountable

more responsible for actions and decisions

identity

the characteristics which someone or something is known for

class

a person's place in society, based on their wealth and the privileges available to them

supernatural

unexplainable or abnormal. Often used in reference to ghostly or magical events

witchcraft

the practice of magic

tried for murder

accused of murder and taken to trial in court

folklore

traditional stories or myths passed down through generations

persecuted

treated unfairly or victimised

to curse

verb meaning to use a supernatural power to hurt someone

to cough up

to produce something, usually money

a stab in the dark

a wild guess

eerie

adjective meaning creepy, strange or frightening

To make a fuss

To become angry or upset about something, often unnecessarily

To make a scene

To complain very loudly and lose your temper

To annoy

To make someone angry with you

To irritate

To provoke anger or displeasure

Formal complaint

Official, sometimes written, statement of dissatisfaction, made to a person or organisation

Riled up

Made angry or dissatisfied

Nettle

Wild plant which stings you if you touch it

To grasp the nettle

To deal with an unpleasant problem or situation in a bold, decisive way

stress

a feeling of tension and worry

absence

being unavailable

tough

difficult, hard

employees

people who are paid to work for somebody

taking its toll

causing suffering, harm or damage

public sector

part of the economy that is controlled or supported financially by the government

organisational change

replacing the structure of a workplace with a different one

job security

the probability of someone keeping their job for a long time

redundancies

jobs which will stop existing

a strategy

a plan to achieve something

counselling

professional advice about a problem, often relating to mental health

romantic

someone who has a lot of positive and sometimes unrealistic ideas, particularly about love

the front line

place where soldiers are directly fighting their enemy in a war, and in danger of being killed

a sweetheart

term used to express fondness for someone else, sometimes in a romantic way

shy

person who is quiet, nervous and uncomfortable with other people

engaged

two people who have promised to get married to each other

distant

far away

very moving

something which makes you emotional

worst case scenarios

the most unpleasant or unsatisfactory situations you can imagine

deployment

movement of army troops to a place

banal

something that is very ordinary and not interesting

social networks

groups of people who interact with each other and share photos or website links via internet sites (e.g. Facebook, Twitter)

status update

the latest news about someone's activities or what they are doing, as published on a social networking website

scam

scheme or plan to deceive people

fraudsters

criminals or dishonest people who trick others with the aim of getting their money or private information

a lucrative hotbed

here, a good opportunity to earn lots of money from social media users

succession

act or process of following in order or sequence

monarch

a king or queen who reigns over a country

abdicates

gives up a position of being a king or a queen

outdated

no longer useful or relevant

approval

a positive opinion of someone or something

dominance

preference of something or someone over other similar things or persons

ruled out

prevented from happening or from being possible

historic

important in history

reforms

changes and improvements to the law, social system or institution

implementing

carrying out a plan, system or law

the odds are stacked against you

it is very unlikely you will succeed because in your current situation many things will work against you

pupils

learners who are taught in a class

a level playing field

a situation allowing an equal chance for all participants to be successful at something

income

money earned from working

social and emotional

people living and interacting with each other (social); people responding outwardly to their feelings (emotional)

cognitive

the process of our brains learning, knowing and thinking about information

fidgety

making small, quick movements in a nervous way

restless

moving about aimlessly, unable to relax or focus on tasks

clingy

not wanting to be separated from other people, often physically holding on to them or seeking their attention

better-off

here, richer or from a more privileged background

counterpart

person who is at the same level (e.g. at school) or does the same job as someone else

population

the total number of people living in a particular country or region

billion

a thousand million (in some parts of the world a million million)

it's estimated

experts have made approximate calculations of how much something is likely to be or cost

projection

an expected outcome

explosion

here, a large, sudden increase

defining challenge

a difficult or demanding task that will shape or characterise related events

technological solution

the use of technology to solve a problem or find an answer

refrigeration

keeping something at a constant, cold temperature

transportation

moving things or people from one place to another

optimised

to have made something become as best as it can be

consumption

here, eating or drinking something

the pitch

here, the placing of a note, either high or low

the key

the notes used in a piece of music, which are based on a scale, or specific series of notes

too narrow

not wide enough to include all people who have different levels of musical skills

immersed

surrounded by a large amount of

engenders

causes or equips someone with musical skills

a sophisticated skill

an advanced or complicated ability

ring tones

the various sounds which mobile phones make when a call or message is received

tone-deaf

unable to sing in tune or to recognise different melodies

debunk

to show something is untrue or unimportant

myths

stories which are old and well known, but are not based on truth

categorised

divided into sets or groups

persecuted

treated worse than other people (maybe because of your race, religion or lifestyle)

elegant

pleasing and graceful in appearance

perceived

believed

discrimination

treating a person or a group of people worse than others

an open season

a period of time when the usual rules don't apply

minorities

small groups in society

unrepresentative

here, not typical of a group of people or viewpoint

(the) establishment

(the) government, authorities, and influential people in society (e.g. the media)

To fidget

To keep moving your hands or feet, or changing position slightly (because you are nervous or bored)

To slump

Here, to sit heavily with a curved spine (not in an upright position), perhaps because you are tired

To take the weight or to bear the weight

To support or hold something up

Ergonomic

Designed to support the human body more and improve health and posture

Fatigue

Tiredness or weakness

Bolt upright

Sitting or standing very straight

Legroom

The space in front of a seat for your legs

Elbowroom

The space available in the surrounding area to move your arms. Also a generic word to describe the amount of space somewhere (i.e. in a room)

citizen journalism

information collected by people who are not formally employed as journalists; their material is not always edited and published by recognised media sources

trained

learned how to be a reporter through courses or lessons

social media

websites where people interact socially via different types of technology and software

democratisation

a process which makes it easier for people to find out about and contribute to the information available

to publish

to make your work available to the public through printed or electronic media (e.g. books, newspapers, the internet)

media brands

well known companies or corporations which produce media content (e.g. the BBC)

to go through them

to read, analyse and organise them

verify

confirm something is true

hasn't really been tested yet

not yet known if it works well in really challenging situations

valuable source

place where useful and trusted information can be found

political beliefs

your opinions on how governments should run the world

scanned

here, photographed by a machine which can show images of people's brains

left-wing

having political ideas which are close to socialism

liberal

tolerant of different beliefs or behaviours

right-wing

having political ideas which support conservatism and capitalism

conservative

likes to preserve traditional ideas, and resists changes or new ideas

hard-wired

here, unmovable in opinion

MRI scans

a machine which can photograph people's brains (MRI, magnetic resonance imaging)

hypothesis

explanation or theory which has not yet proved to be correct

grey matter

type of matter which forms part of the brain

neurons

cells in the human nervous system which conduct messages to and from the brain

nerve cells

cells which, together, form human nerves

Boutique

Small shop that sells fashionable items

High street / main street

A street of a town where most of the shops are

Discount

A reduction in the price

A good deal

Here, a good price of something

Vast

Extremely large

Fast Food

Food which is prepared and served very quickly

Upmarket

Things which appeal to or designed for people with higher income

Downmarket

Things which appeal to or designed for people with lower income

Crowded

Full of people or things

favourite

best, most liked or loved

a preference for

a strong liking for one thing rather than another

an obsession

feeling a need to do something without wanting to stop

dizzy

light-headed, unsteady, unwell

faint

unwell, feeling as though you are about to pass out or lose consciousness

concentrate

pay attention to a task

retailers

people or companies that sell things

manufacturers

people or companies that make things

merchandising

displays, advertising, selling

trick

cheat, scam, dishonestly convince someone to do something

toddlers

children who have just learned to walk

to supervise

to watch over a person or an activity they are doing and make sure it is done correctly

supervision

the act of supervising people or their activities

second nature

something which you can do easily and naturally

splash

the sound made when something hits the water

to dive

to jump into water, usually head-first

hoops

large rings made of wood, metal or plastic

armed forces

army, navy and air force of a country

reforms

changes and improvement to a law, social system or institution

qualified

someone who passed the examination in order to work in a particular profession

certified

to be issued a certificate saying that a person completed training in order to work in a particular profession

statistically

relating to information shown in numbers

critics

here, people who disapprove of an idea or suggestion

undigested

here, this means unchanged

ridiculous

very foolish or absurd

approaches

methods or system

exemption

freedom from obeying a rule or a duty

light pollution

artificial light at night which makes the night sky lighter and means stars can't be seen very well

twinkling

describes the way light from stars seems to shine strongly then weakly

satellite

an object which moves around a larger object in space

star gazer

someone who enjoys looking at stars

realm of opportunity

chances to explore a certain area of interest

amateur astronomers

people who study the stars as a hobby

fonts

different styles and sizes of letters that are used in printing or typing

an array

a group or collection of things or people, often large or impressive

typography

the way of preparing and arranging printed material, especially designing how text will appear when it's printed

calligraphy

the art of producing beautiful handwriting often using a brush or a special pen

unsophisticated

simple and basic

characteristics

qualities or features that are typical of someone or something

humanitarian

concerned with reducing suffering and improving the conditions that people live in

competent

efficient and effective

loathed

disliked very much

jaunty

light-hearted, full of confidence and energetic

hidden costs

charges for a product or service that are not clearly advertised by the seller

clicking

selecting links on internet pages by pressing on your computer mouse

budgeted for

amount of money you had planned to spend

an emotional commitment

a personal connection to a plan or course of action, which you feel it is important to complete

to pull out

to decide not to do something, or withdraw from a commitment

a great boon

very helpful or beneficial

a round-trip

American English, meaning a return trip, or journey which takes you to a place and back to where you started

deceptive

make you believe something that is not true

ingenious

very clever

slums

areas of a city where living conditions are very bad

obstacle

something which makes it difficult to go forward or do something

insignificant

not important

virtually

almost entirely, nearly

necessity

the need to do something

essentially

in a fundamental or basic way

algae

plant-like organism living mainly in water

refracted

here, a ray of sunlight which changed its path where it entered water

economical

does not require a lot of money to operate

watts

units of measurement of electrical power

philanthropy

the effort to improve something by giving time, money or attention

billionaires

people whose wealth is greater than a billion - in this example - US dollars

industrialists

people who own or develop big businesses

a tendency to do something

usually does something

a notable part of

a significant aspect of

a good cause

a problem or charitable organisation worthy of money and attention

a handful of

very few of

enthusiasm

eagerness to do something or be involved in it

Superstition

the belief that particular events happen in a way that cannot be explained by science or reason

To touch wood/knock on wood

something you do in order to avoid bad luck, either when you mention good luck that you have had in the past or when you mention hopes you have for the future

A lucky charm

a small object worn on a chain or bracelet that is believed to bring good luck

Off the top of my head

to think of something quickly or instantly without much research

Seagull

a wild bird that tends to live around the coast

Embodiment

a person or thing that represents an idea or quality, or a memory of something

Cuckoo

a wild bird with a call that sounds like its name

An old wives tale

superstitious belief or story belonging to traditional folklore

sheer

completely vertical

hair-raising

something so scary your hair stands up!

volatile

something that can change suddenly and unexpectedly

ravaged

harmed or damaged, nearly destroyed

mineral resources

things that are found naturally in the earth, such as tin, salt, coal

erupting volcano

a type of mountain which has hot melted rock, steam and ash bursting out of the top

lava

the hot liquid rock which comes out of a volcano and becomes solid as it cools

spewing out

pouring out quickly and in large quantities

proximity

closeness

to flee

to run away

endangered

a person, animal or place that is in danger of being harmed or destroyed

campaign

a set of activities planned to achieve something, such as social or political change

resource

here, a valuable and useful product

criticism

the expression of disapproval of someone or something

biodegradable

something that decomposes or breaks down naturally without any special treatment

compulsory

something that must be done

financial levy

a sum of money that you pay in tax

landfill sites

a place where a large amounts of waste materials are disposed of

to wean

to gradually make people stop doing something or using something

behaviour

the way people or things act, function or change

environmentally friendly

a caring effect on the natural world, such as plants, animals and the atmosphere

ethos

set of ideas and attitudes

lunar calendar

something that shows the days and months in a year, based on the moon's journey around the Earth each month

a clue

a piece of information which can help to find answers

animal rights activists

people who try to bring attention to the cruel treatment of animals and get laws introduced to help protect them

a ban

an official order or statement saying that something isn't allowed

thrown back

carelessly tossed or flung to where it came from

the campaign

the organised set of activities aimed at achieving an objective

the media coverage

all the information given about a particular situation or event in newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, websites etc

boycotting

refusing to buy goods or be involved in activities because you don't agree with them

a must

something which most people think is essential

prestigious

highly thought of, respected and valued

To pull a sickie

To pretend to be ill so you can take time off work

To skip work

Not to go to work

To skive

To be lazy and avoid work or school

Skiver

A person who skives

Readdress

Look at an issue or a problem once again

Go for it!

Do something in order to get something

Duvet

A large cover which you sleep under in bed

Duvet day

An extra day's holiday which your employer allows you to take

addict

someone who can't stop doing something (usually something harmful like taking drugs but also time-consuming activities like watching TV)

medium

a method of communication, such as radio, TV or newspapers

telegraphy

a method of sending messages over long distances using radio or electric signals

to settle for (something)

to accept something less than you hoped for

visual

relating to what can be seen

experimental

new or being tried for the first time

mystical

relating to powers that we cannot understand

manufacturers

companies that produce things

high definition

a new, high standard for TV quality

spoilt for choice

a phrase meaning to have too many options or things to choose from

artificial

objects or materials which do not occur naturally, and are made by people

a new lease of life

a new, positive stage in your life

heartbeat

the regular movement of the heart as it pumps blood
around the body

comforting

reassuring

got to a point

reached a position or time

mind-blowing

extraordinary or amazing

pneumatic

powered by compressed or pressurised air

rucksack

large bag for carrying personal belongings, which is
carried on the back

 

Global English Dictionary

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